Glossary

B

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Barley grain stitch 

Classic structure derived from links-links, made when even needles work for two courses on the front bed, while odd needles work on the back. The selection is then reversed for the following courses. 

Bourrelet structure 

Structure derived from a simple rib fabric, obtained by knitting one course of 1x1 rib followed by 4-6 courses on one bed only. This produces a horizontal raise effect. 

 

C

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Cable stitch 

Cable fabric is a double knit fabric made by the special loop transfer technique. The wales in the fabric have a rope-like an appearance, where plaits are based on the transfer of loops with adjacent wales. The fabric has an interesting surface texture like braids as the loops cross each other. It is widely used as sweater fabric.

Cardigan Stitch 

Cardigans are a variation of Rib Knit with half Cardigan and Full Cardigan varieties. The fabric has specific patterns of tuck stitches. These produce a raised effect and hence, cardigans are a thicker fabric.

Carriage 

Mobile component of flat knitting machines containing a cam system and  a yarn carrier drive mechanism. 

Course 

Horizontal series of loops within fabric. The row of loops in a warp or weft knitted fabric that run across the width of the fabric. 

 

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English gauge 

The number of needles within one english inch measured in the needle plane. 

 

F

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Face stitch 

Knitted stitch formed by a needle on the technical face of the fabric. 

Finishing 

An operation performed on a fabric or garment after knitting. The term is usually confined to specialist operations such as bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc. 

Flat knit

Flat or Jersey Knit fabrics have visible flat vertical lines on the front and dominant horizontal ribs on the back of the fabric. The flat or jersey knit stitch is used frequently, it is fast, inexpensive, and can be varied to produce fancy patterned fabrics. A major disadvantage of regular flat knits is their tendency to “run” if a yarn is broken. The flat or jersey stitch can be varied by using different yarns or double-looped stitches of different lengths to make terry, velour, and plush fabrics. This stitch is also used in making nylon hosiery, men’s underwear, and t-shirts.

Fleece 

Fleece is a type of weft insertion jersey. Weft insertion fabrics are weft knitted fabrics in which an additional yarn is inserted for each course. These additional yarns are not knit, rather they are held by the loops in each course of the fabric. The inserted yarn may be decorative or functional like stretch yarn. It provides stability, cover, and comfort. The insertion yarn is usually coarser than the base yarn. When the insertion yarn forming piles are sheared and napped, it is called Fleece. They are usually made of Cotton, Cotton/Polyester, Wool, and Acrylic. End Uses include jackets, dresses, sportswear, and sweaters.

Float Stitch 

Stitch where the yarn is not received by a needle and floats across the connecting two loops on the same course that are not in adjacent wales. also known as a miss stitch.

Front needle bed

Flat knitting machine bed that is nearest to the observer standing in front of the machine. 

Full Cardigan

The Full Cardigan is made of a repeat of one course of all knit on front needles and all tuck on back needles, the second course of all tuck on front needles and all knit on back needles. Full Cardigan looks identical on both sides. Excessive tuck loops make the fabric bulky and thick. It is usually knitted in coarser gauge and widely used in making sweaters and fashion garments. Cardigans are usually made of Wool or Acrylic.

Full Milano

Full Milano is made of a repeat of one course of all knit on both needle beds, the second course of all knit on front needles only and the third course of all knit on back needles only. Full Milano is finely knitted fabric and has better coverage. It has greater dimensional stability than half Milano rib. It is widely used as suiting fabrics. 

 

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Gauge

Numerical value related to the number of needles in one English inch. A higher gauge number means a finer knit, meaning a gauge 3 will produce an extra chunky knit, while a gauge 18 will produce a finest knit. 

 

H

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Half cardigan stitch 

The Half Cardigan is made of one course of all knit on both needle beds and second course of all knit on front needles and all tuck on back needles. The tuck loops present in the fabric reduce the stretch in width direction. It is not reversible fabric. They are generally coarsely knitted and used for making pullovers and sweaters.

Half milano rib

Half Milano is made of a repeat of one course of all knit on both needle beds and second course of all knit on front needles only. It has an unbalanced structure. It is usually knitted coarse gauge and widely used for making sweaters.

Hammer-shaped sleeve 

Sleeve with a number of narrowing which is calculated to obtain a semi circular shape, showing a rectangle extension covering the shoulder. 

Honeycomb structure 

Structure showing small square holes on the surface. 

 

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Intarsia

Intarsia is patterned single knit fabric. It is made of knitting multi-colored yarns. The fabric has the same course knitted in different colors with different yarns. It has colored designs as blocks distributed in different color backgrounds. The patterns look identical on both the face and backside of the fabric. There are no floats found on the backside of the fabric. It is typically used to make shirts, blouses, and sweaters.  

Interlock structure 

A rib based fabric achieved by interlocking two sets of 1x1 rib fabric so that the face stitch of one course is directly in front of the reverse stitch of the other. 

 

J

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 Jacquard 

Jacquard Jerseys are single jersey fabrics made of Circular Knitting machines using Jacquard mechanism. They are the simplest method of making patterned fabrics. They are produced with interesting patterns, which may have any of the following:

  • Combinations of stitches, or
  • Combinations of yarn types in terms of color textures etc.

Jacquard fabrics have different colored loops made of different threads in the same course. Floats are an inherent feature of single jersey jacquards. They are widely used in the sweater industry.

 

K

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Knitted fabric 

A fabric made of yarns or threads that are formed into loops and meshed together by sets of needles. 

Knitted stitch loop

Basic unit of knitted fabrics. 

Knitted stitch 

Basic unit or element within fabric, formed by individual needles within a machine. 

 

L

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Loop 

Yarn in 3 dimensional curved shape forming one knitted stitch 

Lozenge 

The lozenge is a rhomboid knitted structure made by diagonal stitch transfer. 

 

M

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Milano Rib

Derived of 1x1 rib fabrics in which the first courses knits on all needle. The second course knits on the needles in the rear bed only, and the third knits on needles in the front bed only. 

 

P

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Plain fabric 

A basic knitted structure produced by a machine having a single set of needles. All of the loops are formed in the same direction. 

Plated Structure 

Structure resulting from the simultaneous feeding of two (usually different coloured) yarns in the loop. The resulting loop will appear different in colour on the face and reverse side. 

Popcat sleeve 

Sleeve with a number of decreased needles which is calculated to obtain a semi circular shape. 

Punched structure 

Structure based on knitted stitch transfer from one needle to another resulting in the formation of a hole. 

Purl knit

Purl Knit Fabrics look the same on both sides of the fabric. Many attractive patterns and designs can be created with the purl stitch. It is often used in the manufacture of bulky sweaters and children’s clothing. The production speed is generally slow with Purl knits.

Purl Knit is made by knitting yarn as alternate knit and purl stitch in one wale of the fabric. The fabric has alternate courses of knit stitch and purl stitch. The fabric is reversible and identical on both sides of the fabric. The fabric does not curl and lies flat. It is more stretchable in length direction.

 

R

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Raglan sleeve 

Sleeve knitted by progressively decreased the number of needles that knitting towards the tip of sleeve. 

Reverse stitch 

Knitted stitch formed on a needle on the reverse side. 

Rib jacquard with birdseye backing 

Multi coloured patterned structure manufactured on a double jersey machine employing two sets of needles. The structure is produced by a combination of knit and miss stitches. It has a design on the face side and a mixed colour effect on the technical reverse. 

Rib jacquard with meshed backing

Multi coloured patterned structure manufactured on a double jersey machine employing two sets of needles. The structure is produced by a combination of knit and miss stitches. It has a design on the face side. The reverse side of the fabric has a layered appearance caused by some needles remaining inoperative. 

Rib jacquard with stripped backing jacquard

Multi coloured patterned structure manufactured on a rib machine. The needles in the front needle bed are selected to produce a coloured design. All of the rear bed needles knit on every course, producing a stripped effect. 

Rib structure  

Basic weft knitted structure made by machines with two needle beds. It is produced by arranging the needles so that those on the rear knitting bed are arranged mid way between those on the front bed. 

Rice grain stitch 

Classic structure derived from links-links, made when even needles knits on the front bed, while odd needles knits on the back. The selection is then reversed for the following courses. 

Roma Stitch (ponte di)

Classic structure derived from interlock fabrics, which is made by alternately knitting two course of interlock and then one course tubular fabric. 

 

S

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Single jersey jacquard 

Basic weft knitted structure made with one needle bed. All the stitches are formed in the same direction. 

 

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Tubular jacquard 

Usually a two coloured patterned structures manufactured on a double jersey machine employing two sets of needles. The structure is produced by a combination of knit and miss stitches. 

Tubular structure

Structure produced on a rib machine by knitting alternate courses on the back and on the front knitting bed as to produce a knitted tube. 

Twilled structure 

Discontinuous diagonal pattern.